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A Journal quarterly accredited academic journal issued by the College of Education University of Karbala
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Journal Information

Publisher: Kerbala University

Email:  Al-Bahith_journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. farok m. alhaboby

ISSN: 2003-2222

Adverbs of Frequency in English and Arabic As A Contrastive Study

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 403-414

Key words: Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, Modern Standard English (MSE), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), English Adverbs of Frequency, and Arabic counterparts of Adverbs of Frequency.
Abstract
The present study deals with adverbs of frequency in Modern Standard English and Modern Standard Arabic. This is an analytical contrastive study that is applied here to reveal the aspects of similarity and dissimilarity between the two languages. It consists of five sections; introduction, adverbs of frequency in MSE, the counterparts of them in MSA, contrastive analysis of adverbs of frequency between the two languages and conclusions.
The research-paper arrives at some similarities and differences. They are similar in: position of the adverbs(initial, medial, final) and existence of negative in both. As for differences, English differs from Arabic in that adverbs of frequency are of two main kinds: Definite Frequency and Indefinite Frequency, English adverbs of frequency come between subject and the main verb but when we have auxiliary they come after it. In Arabic, this case is not found.

The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Quranic Language

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 0-0

Abstract
The research ''The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Qur'anic Language'' is taken by the researchers in order to investigate and analyze the social linguistic influences in Qur'anic meaning. The most important features of this topic is to approach the Qur’anic texts from sociolinguistic view point. Sociolinguistic view point is that social features can limit the social environment of the speaker by means of different speech habits and behaviors.
It is worth mentioning that this study is to find the meanings of sociolinguistic terminology concerning the style of intimidation and inducement in Quranic language. It is important ,in such a case, to make a comparison between solidarity and intimacy with intimidation and inducement, since all these concepts guide us to the same result. The glorious Quranic texts have been chosen, since these texts contain many words and expressions of power speech and solidarity.
The study endeavors to determine different types of sociolinguistic variations concerning power speech and solidarity in terms of intimidation and inducement in a speech community according to social situation including: place, role-relationship and topic to constitute a typical linguistic domain. It is important to prove that intimidation and inducement create words and expressions that are the fundamental basis of the Arab-Muslim society. The researchers will prove that these facts, firstly, by studying the findings of some well – known sociolinguists like John Gumberz and Wiliam Labove who have written the rules of writing controversial texts concerning changing within a speech community. We make use from some definitions of Noam Chomsky concerning an ideal speaker-listener of homogeneity of language in different speech communities. Secondly, it is to apply the rules of discourse analysis for selected Glorious Quranic texts .


.

Adverbs of Frequency in English and Arabic As A Contrastive Study

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 403-414

Key words: Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, Modern Standard English (MSE), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), English Adverbs of Frequency, and Arabic counterparts of Adverbs of Frequency.
Abstract
The present study deals with adverbs of frequency in Modern Standard English and Modern Standard Arabic. This is an analytical contrastive study that is applied here to reveal the aspects of similarity and dissimilarity between the two languages. It consists of five sections; introduction, adverbs of frequency in MSE, the counterparts of them in MSA, contrastive analysis of adverbs of frequency between the two languages and conclusions.
The research-paper arrives at some similarities and differences. They are similar in: position of the adverbs(initial, medial, final) and existence of negative in both. As for differences, English differs from Arabic in that adverbs of frequency are of two main kinds: Definite Frequency and Indefinite Frequency, English adverbs of frequency come between subject and the main verb but when we have auxiliary they come after it. In Arabic, this case is not found.

The impact of active learning in the development of skills in Reading Comprehension material literature and texts with literary fourth grade students

Safaa Wadia abd AL Sada AL-abady

Al-Bahith Journal, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 180-205

The goal of current research to identify the effectiveness of active learning in the development of reading comprehension skills for students in the fourth grade literary material literature and texts, compared to the traditional way of teaching.
The literature has demonstrated the positive impact of previous studies of this kind of active learning strategies in the development of the skill of reading comprehension for students.
To achieve the goal of the research and the researcher developed the following null hypothesis; (There is no statistically significant difference at the level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who are studying literature and texts material strategy of active learning, and the average score for the control group students who are studying literature and texts in the traditional way). The study sample consisted of random (41) students from the fourth row of the literary stage Preparatory School.
Rewarded researcher between the two groups of students in search of some variables, namely: (level of intelligence, and the chronological age of the students measured in months). Having identified the issues of scientific material to be examined in the course of the experiment drafted researcher behavioral objectives for these issues in the light of the general goals of the material and content of the subject which included six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the cognitive domain, namely: (remembering, understanding, application, analysis, installation, and Calendar) .
The researcher has designed a tool to collect and measure the results, and were as follows: The presence of statistically significant differences between the traditional method and the strategy of active learning, were in favor of the experimental group that studied according to the strategy of active learning to the control group, who studied according to the traditional method.
In light of the results concluded several conclusions, including the researcher, that the use of active learning strategy contribute to raising the level of academic achievement for students in the fourth grade literary material and literature texts.
The researcher recommended the need to use a strategy of active learning in the teaching of literature and texts of the Preparatory phase, and the need to train faculty to use a strategy of active learning, and suggested that similar studies of current research in other branches of the Arabic language and the different stages of learning.

The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Quranic Language

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 0-0

Abstract
The research ''The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Qur'anic Language'' is taken by the researchers in order to investigate and analyze the social linguistic influences in Qur'anic meaning. The most important features of this topic is to approach the Qur’anic texts from sociolinguistic view point. Sociolinguistic view point is that social features can limit the social environment of the speaker by means of different speech habits and behaviors.
It is worth mentioning that this study is to find the meanings of sociolinguistic terminology concerning the style of intimidation and inducement in Quranic language. It is important ,in such a case, to make a comparison between solidarity and intimacy with intimidation and inducement, since all these concepts guide us to the same result. The glorious Quranic texts have been chosen, since these texts contain many words and expressions of power speech and solidarity.
The study endeavors to determine different types of sociolinguistic variations concerning power speech and solidarity in terms of intimidation and inducement in a speech community according to social situation including: place, role-relationship and topic to constitute a typical linguistic domain. It is important to prove that intimidation and inducement create words and expressions that are the fundamental basis of the Arab-Muslim society. The researchers will prove that these facts, firstly, by studying the findings of some well – known sociolinguists like John Gumberz and Wiliam Labove who have written the rules of writing controversial texts concerning changing within a speech community. We make use from some definitions of Noam Chomsky concerning an ideal speaker-listener of homogeneity of language in different speech communities. Secondly, it is to apply the rules of discourse analysis for selected Glorious Quranic texts .


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Image of Oppressed woman in Nathanial Hawthorne’s ‘’ The Birthmark’’

M.Maali Abdul Hussein Mehdi

Al-Bahith Journal, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 328-338

The question of women is the dominating motive in Hawthorne’s works, which offer rich images of women; their changing lives, frustrations and dreams. Hawthorne never viewed women as unimportant or as threatening Eves, but rather, as men’s vital, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual partners, companions not threats. In his short stories and romances, Hawthorne creates a wide range of female characters. Some are independent-minded, self-confident; others embody the gender expectations of women in Hawthorne’s day, weak and dependent on men.1
He presents a number of female characters who are victims of men, destroyed by male power. Through these various characters and their experiences, Hawthorne explores the gender relations in his day. He also raises questions about the role of domesticity in shaping female characters and the role of emotion as well as reason in human experience.2
This study focuses on one of Hawthorne’s female character who has been controlled by her selfish husband, Georgiana, the heroine of ‘’the Birthmark’’, and how this selfishness leads to her death. Consequently, woman cannot be defined by her relation to a man because she is an independent human being.

Thought soundwhenImamJa'far ibn Muhammad Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148H)

Asst.Proo. D. HassanAbd Al-Ghanial-Asadi

Al-Bahith Journal, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 265-285

Karbala University/Faculty of Islamic Sciences
Research Summary: Thought sound when Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148 H)
Book uniformity dictated by Imam al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148 H) on his favorite student Ben Omar a leading Islamic heritage sounding the Imam Sadeq scientific aspects of multiple foundations landmarks stage of scientific thinking was the voice side and one of them. This included side on three tracks: the production of sounds, and the center of the carrier, and a hearing. Like Imam (peace be upon him) a Palmes pronunciation, which represent an impact in the process to understand the mechanism of speech, and has its impact in subsequent studies. Thus Imam is the founder of this science, in light of the idea of unification; held the book for a statement manifestations.

The Effectiveness Of Using Class Activities In Acquiring And Concepts By The Students Of TheSustaining Geographical First Year Intermediate Schools

Azher Muhammad Ali KadhimAziz K.Naief

Al-Bahith Journal, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 15, Pages 319-349

And Scientific Research
University of Karbala
College of Education for human studies
The Effectiveness Of Using Class Activities In Acquiring And
Concepts By The Students Of TheSustaining Geographical
First Year Intermediate Schools
By Student
Azher Muhammad Ali KadhimAziz K.Naief
Abstract
This research aims
know (the effectiveness of
using class activities in
acquiring and sustaining
geographical concepts by
the students of the firstyear
intermediate schools).
To achieve this aim, the
researcher has constructed
tow nil hypotheses:
1.Statistically there is no
significant relation at(0,05)
level between the average
marks of the experimental
group taught by using class
activities and of the
controlled group taught by
traditional method in the test
of acquiring geographical
concepts.
2. There is not such a
significant relation also
between the two group in
the test of sustaining
geographic concepts.
The research has been
conducted on the first- year
intermediate and secondary
morning schools for girls,
belonging to the general
directory of education in
Karbala.
The sample, which was
chosen from the first- year
students of summaye
intermediate school,
randomly consists of (68)
students.
The material to be tested
was the first four chapters
from the textbook of
geography, principles of
general geography for the
first- year intermediate
schools (20) geographical
concepts were identified,
and (112) behavioral goals .
The test of acquiring
geographical concepts
consists of (60) items of
multiple- choice type in
agreement with the three
processes of measuring the
acquiring of
concepts(defining the
concept- recognizing the
concept- applying the
concept) the test was
assured for its validity,
reliability and psychometric
features.
The data were analyses
by using(t-test) the results
showed that the
experimental group which
was taught by using class
activities has surpassed the
second group taught by
traditional method in both
tests acquiring geographical
concepts test, and
sustaining geographical
concepts test.
In the light of the findings
obtained, the researcher put
forward the following
recommendations:
1.Concentrating on class
activities as a fundamental
component of lesson
planning.
2.Having booklets or leaflets
to explain the goals of
educational class activities
for all stages to help
teachers of social sciences
when teaching these
subjects.
3.Constructing training
courses for teachers of
geography to be aware of
the importance and use of
these educational class
activities
The researcher suggests
that the following studies
should be carried out: -
1.Conducting a similar study
for other different stages
and other variables such as
creative thinking and
problem solving.
2. Conducting a similar
study for other subjects.

“The city of Eridu and their role in Mesopotamia A Historical Study & Archaeology”

Al-Bahith Journal, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 27-46

In Sumerian times Eridu ( Abu Shahrin ) was the southern limit, and was” on the shore of the sea “ Within an arc of some 250 Miles radius towards the north-west of that point stood the great centers of Sumerian culture and power. The geographical and climatic conditions of this territory had their inevitable influence in shaping the manner of life to be followed

there, but it is no exaggeration to say that a common stock of ideas and material equipment gave a definition to geography rather than the reverse. Whereas the early pre-historic cultures, which Babylonia only shared, have various but always wide extensions, the first age on history, the Early Dynastic, pass within limits which are almost narrow.
Eridu (or Eridug/Urudug, from Sumerian Eri.dugga, "Good City") was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur. Eridu was the southernmost of the conglomeration of cities that grew about temples, almost in sight of one another, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia. One name of Eridu in cuneiform logograms was pronounced "NUN.KI" ("the Mighty Place") in Sumerian, but much later the same "NUN.KI" was understood to mean the city of Babylon. According to the Sumerian kinglist Eridu was the first city in the world. The opening line reads
"[nam]-lugal an-ta èd-dè-a-ba
[eri]duki nam-lugal-la"
"When kingship from heaven was lowered,
the kingship was in Eridu."
The ziggurat ruins of Eridu are far larger and older than any others, and seem to best match the Biblical description of the unfinished Tower of Babel. In the Sumerian king list, Eridu is named as the city of the first kings. The kinglist continues:In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridu fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira

Logical Lights on the Method Geographical Research AnDeductive Study of the Academic Theses

Hussien Ali A. AL-Hussien

Al-Bahith Journal, 2012, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 295-317

The study sheads the light on the importance of logic indirecting the geographical scientifit approach in achieving the most accurate results in finding the unknown variables .The study also discusses the analysis of the mistakes which are causes by the ignorance of the researcher of the approach followed in the study included in university thesis that might lead to uncertain results ,thus,the achieviting requirements of the logical thinking of the researcher is considered very important in finding the unknown variables according of the main approaches in searching (Deduction) (Indection) and the seconding approaches which are used within each branch of geography. A question is used in collecting the data of the study to (166) thesis which are considered as a sample to the study according to a degree of confidence ( 95% ) .
The question air is diding in variable percentages to the different branches of geography according to avaiblity of the studing in these branches which includes a number of Iraq university thesis (Master and Ph.D) in dependents of geography ,the colleges of arts in the period from (2002 to 2009),(35.5%) of these studies is related to natural geography which humanistic geography received(59%) of the study and finally(5.5%) is related to catography.
The researcher has arrived at the following conclusions in the study :
1- Researchers has mis conception indisting uishing between the concept of the structure of the study and the approach of the study which arrives at a percentage of (54.2%).
2- The study imporves that researchers do not realize the importance of the scientific hypothesis since (21%) of the studies included in the sampls of the study did include the hypothesis . 3- The hiqh percentage of the studies which use the Deduction approach in which statistics is used which reached(56%) of the studies is considered as a good marker to following the quantity stracture in which the most accurate resulte are achieved

Patterns of Artistic Expression in the drawings of intermediate school students and their Relation to the Control location

Ahmed a. A. Al-Azerjawi; Ali Abdul-Kareem Aal-Ridha; an Ghadhban Habeeb; Kan

Al-Bahith Journal, 2011, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 36-72

styles of art expression in paintings of mid-school students and its relation with the sexual variable .
The research aimed in identifying the styles of art expression in paintings of mid-school students with the similarity and difference in the art expression according to sexual variable .
This search was done on the two samples of students of the mid-school from (13-15)age from both sexes. The first sample was used for the exploratory research. There were(160) students, (80)boys and (80) girls, who were taken from two schools, also this sample was used in the proving and affixing the research tool . The students of the second research were (400)students in the range of (200) boys and (200) girls ,who were taken from (6)mid- schools in Baqubah ( center of Diyala governorate),this sample was used in the basic research.
Only one tool was used in this research ,this tool is (selection tool for style of art- expression), which has done by (Hamady) in1998 year .also it was designed to limit the styles of art- expression in the paintings of secondary stage, which it was used here in this research according to what (Victor Linfield) and (Harbert Reid)concluded that these styles(visual , sensory)which could be seen from overdue childhood onward ; of what encouraged the researchers to use it in this research after becoming sure it is true.
The current research reached to finding of two distinct styles in the in paintings of the students of mid-school (13-15)years .These differences between these two styles were ha a statistic sign at level (0,05) which were (visual style)and (subjective style). Also two mixed distinct styles showed from each other ,which are (completely visual / completely subjective ) and (completely subjective / visual - subjective),therefore, the two researchers saw to combine each one the closest point to it ,so it became only two visual and subjective. Also there is no repetitions of difference between the styles of the painting of the boys and girls is with a statistic indication at level (0,05) , which is proving that the two styles are not distinct in this scope. Also the normative wrong was calculated { } for quadruple connection which shows that it is smaller then connection element art-which is not a meaning sign ,which arranged no finding of relation between the styles of art- expression and sexual variable.
In the light or results of this research, two researchers introduced suitable recommendations ,also they introduced their suggestion to do another research concerning field connected with this important studying stage which they believe that it supports the role and the importance of the art education .

Investigating Iraqi English Secondary School Teachers' Classroom Strategies

Khansa; a H. AL-Bahadli; Ph.D. Candidate

Al-Bahith Journal, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 17-31

.
Abstract
This study is about Iraqi excellent
English secondary school teachers’
classroom strategies . The study
focuses on teachers’ classroom
strategies in four aspects: managing
classroom interaction, questioning,
teacher’s feedback and error
correction. The findings show that
the teachers use some classroom
strategies that encourage students to
speak at class in order to create an
interactive classroom.
The purpose of this study is to
identify and investigate what exact
strategies the excellent teachers use
to create an interactive classroom.
Two kinds of approaches are mainly
used in the studies of EFL classroom
interactions (Chaudron,1988: 1)
Behavioral Category: behavioral
category classifies behaviors of the
teacher and students in terms of
language skill acquisition
consequences of the behaviors. It
involves the use of a form or
schedule consisting of a set of
categories for coding specific
classroom behaviors. 2) Discourse
analysis: discourse analysis serves as
a device for systematically
describing the kinds of interactions
that occur in language classrooms.
The researchers aim to account for
the joint contributions of teacher and
students and describe all the data.
1.1The Problem and its Significance Introduction