About Journal

A Journal quarterly accredited academic journal issued by the College of Education University of Karbala
Read More ...

Journal Information

Publisher: Kerbala University

Email:  Al-Bahith_journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. farok m. alhaboby

ISSN: 2003-2222

Adverbs of Frequency in English and Arabic As A Contrastive Study

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 403-414

Key words: Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, Modern Standard English (MSE), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), English Adverbs of Frequency, and Arabic counterparts of Adverbs of Frequency.
Abstract
The present study deals with adverbs of frequency in Modern Standard English and Modern Standard Arabic. This is an analytical contrastive study that is applied here to reveal the aspects of similarity and dissimilarity between the two languages. It consists of five sections; introduction, adverbs of frequency in MSE, the counterparts of them in MSA, contrastive analysis of adverbs of frequency between the two languages and conclusions.
The research-paper arrives at some similarities and differences. They are similar in: position of the adverbs(initial, medial, final) and existence of negative in both. As for differences, English differs from Arabic in that adverbs of frequency are of two main kinds: Definite Frequency and Indefinite Frequency, English adverbs of frequency come between subject and the main verb but when we have auxiliary they come after it. In Arabic, this case is not found.

The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Quranic Language

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 0-0

Abstract
The research ''The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Qur'anic Language'' is taken by the researchers in order to investigate and analyze the social linguistic influences in Qur'anic meaning. The most important features of this topic is to approach the Qur’anic texts from sociolinguistic view point. Sociolinguistic view point is that social features can limit the social environment of the speaker by means of different speech habits and behaviors.
It is worth mentioning that this study is to find the meanings of sociolinguistic terminology concerning the style of intimidation and inducement in Quranic language. It is important ,in such a case, to make a comparison between solidarity and intimacy with intimidation and inducement, since all these concepts guide us to the same result. The glorious Quranic texts have been chosen, since these texts contain many words and expressions of power speech and solidarity.
The study endeavors to determine different types of sociolinguistic variations concerning power speech and solidarity in terms of intimidation and inducement in a speech community according to social situation including: place, role-relationship and topic to constitute a typical linguistic domain. It is important to prove that intimidation and inducement create words and expressions that are the fundamental basis of the Arab-Muslim society. The researchers will prove that these facts, firstly, by studying the findings of some well – known sociolinguists like John Gumberz and Wiliam Labove who have written the rules of writing controversial texts concerning changing within a speech community. We make use from some definitions of Noam Chomsky concerning an ideal speaker-listener of homogeneity of language in different speech communities. Secondly, it is to apply the rules of discourse analysis for selected Glorious Quranic texts .


.

Adverbs of Frequency in English and Arabic As A Contrastive Study

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 403-414

Key words: Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, Modern Standard English (MSE), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), English Adverbs of Frequency, and Arabic counterparts of Adverbs of Frequency.
Abstract
The present study deals with adverbs of frequency in Modern Standard English and Modern Standard Arabic. This is an analytical contrastive study that is applied here to reveal the aspects of similarity and dissimilarity between the two languages. It consists of five sections; introduction, adverbs of frequency in MSE, the counterparts of them in MSA, contrastive analysis of adverbs of frequency between the two languages and conclusions.
The research-paper arrives at some similarities and differences. They are similar in: position of the adverbs(initial, medial, final) and existence of negative in both. As for differences, English differs from Arabic in that adverbs of frequency are of two main kinds: Definite Frequency and Indefinite Frequency, English adverbs of frequency come between subject and the main verb but when we have auxiliary they come after it. In Arabic, this case is not found.

The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Quranic Language

Al-Bahith Journal, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 0-0

Abstract
The research ''The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Qur'anic Language'' is taken by the researchers in order to investigate and analyze the social linguistic influences in Qur'anic meaning. The most important features of this topic is to approach the Qur’anic texts from sociolinguistic view point. Sociolinguistic view point is that social features can limit the social environment of the speaker by means of different speech habits and behaviors.
It is worth mentioning that this study is to find the meanings of sociolinguistic terminology concerning the style of intimidation and inducement in Quranic language. It is important ,in such a case, to make a comparison between solidarity and intimacy with intimidation and inducement, since all these concepts guide us to the same result. The glorious Quranic texts have been chosen, since these texts contain many words and expressions of power speech and solidarity.
The study endeavors to determine different types of sociolinguistic variations concerning power speech and solidarity in terms of intimidation and inducement in a speech community according to social situation including: place, role-relationship and topic to constitute a typical linguistic domain. It is important to prove that intimidation and inducement create words and expressions that are the fundamental basis of the Arab-Muslim society. The researchers will prove that these facts, firstly, by studying the findings of some well – known sociolinguists like John Gumberz and Wiliam Labove who have written the rules of writing controversial texts concerning changing within a speech community. We make use from some definitions of Noam Chomsky concerning an ideal speaker-listener of homogeneity of language in different speech communities. Secondly, it is to apply the rules of discourse analysis for selected Glorious Quranic texts .


.

The impact of active learning in the development of skills in Reading Comprehension material literature and texts with literary fourth grade students

Safaa Wadia abd AL Sada AL-abady

Al-Bahith Journal, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 180-205

The goal of current research to identify the effectiveness of active learning in the development of reading comprehension skills for students in the fourth grade literary material literature and texts, compared to the traditional way of teaching.
The literature has demonstrated the positive impact of previous studies of this kind of active learning strategies in the development of the skill of reading comprehension for students.
To achieve the goal of the research and the researcher developed the following null hypothesis; (There is no statistically significant difference at the level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who are studying literature and texts material strategy of active learning, and the average score for the control group students who are studying literature and texts in the traditional way). The study sample consisted of random (41) students from the fourth row of the literary stage Preparatory School.
Rewarded researcher between the two groups of students in search of some variables, namely: (level of intelligence, and the chronological age of the students measured in months). Having identified the issues of scientific material to be examined in the course of the experiment drafted researcher behavioral objectives for these issues in the light of the general goals of the material and content of the subject which included six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the cognitive domain, namely: (remembering, understanding, application, analysis, installation, and Calendar) .
The researcher has designed a tool to collect and measure the results, and were as follows: The presence of statistically significant differences between the traditional method and the strategy of active learning, were in favor of the experimental group that studied according to the strategy of active learning to the control group, who studied according to the traditional method.
In light of the results concluded several conclusions, including the researcher, that the use of active learning strategy contribute to raising the level of academic achievement for students in the fourth grade literary material and literature texts.
The researcher recommended the need to use a strategy of active learning in the teaching of literature and texts of the Preparatory phase, and the need to train faculty to use a strategy of active learning, and suggested that similar studies of current research in other branches of the Arabic language and the different stages of learning.

Image of Oppressed woman in Nathanial Hawthorne’s ‘’ The Birthmark’’

M.Maali Abdul Hussein Mehdi

Al-Bahith Journal, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 328-338

The question of women is the dominating motive in Hawthorne’s works, which offer rich images of women; their changing lives, frustrations and dreams. Hawthorne never viewed women as unimportant or as threatening Eves, but rather, as men’s vital, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual partners, companions not threats. In his short stories and romances, Hawthorne creates a wide range of female characters. Some are independent-minded, self-confident; others embody the gender expectations of women in Hawthorne’s day, weak and dependent on men.1
He presents a number of female characters who are victims of men, destroyed by male power. Through these various characters and their experiences, Hawthorne explores the gender relations in his day. He also raises questions about the role of domesticity in shaping female characters and the role of emotion as well as reason in human experience.2
This study focuses on one of Hawthorne’s female character who has been controlled by her selfish husband, Georgiana, the heroine of ‘’the Birthmark’’, and how this selfishness leads to her death. Consequently, woman cannot be defined by her relation to a man because she is an independent human being.

Thought soundwhenImamJa'far ibn Muhammad Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148H)

Asst.Proo. D. HassanAbd Al-Ghanial-Asadi

Al-Bahith Journal, 2013, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 265-285

Karbala University/Faculty of Islamic Sciences
Research Summary: Thought sound when Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148 H)
Book uniformity dictated by Imam al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148 H) on his favorite student Ben Omar a leading Islamic heritage sounding the Imam Sadeq scientific aspects of multiple foundations landmarks stage of scientific thinking was the voice side and one of them. This included side on three tracks: the production of sounds, and the center of the carrier, and a hearing. Like Imam (peace be upon him) a Palmes pronunciation, which represent an impact in the process to understand the mechanism of speech, and has its impact in subsequent studies. Thus Imam is the founder of this science, in light of the idea of unification; held the book for a statement manifestations.

The Effectiveness Of Using Class Activities In Acquiring And Concepts By The Students Of TheSustaining Geographical First Year Intermediate Schools

Azher Muhammad Ali KadhimAziz K.Naief

Al-Bahith Journal, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 15, Pages 319-349

And Scientific Research
University of Karbala
College of Education for human studies
The Effectiveness Of Using Class Activities In Acquiring And
Concepts By The Students Of TheSustaining Geographical
First Year Intermediate Schools
By Student
Azher Muhammad Ali KadhimAziz K.Naief
Abstract
This research aims
know (the effectiveness of
using class activities in
acquiring and sustaining
geographical concepts by
the students of the firstyear
intermediate schools).
To achieve this aim, the
researcher has constructed
tow nil hypotheses:
1.Statistically there is no
significant relation at(0,05)
level between the average
marks of the experimental
group taught by using class
activities and of the
controlled group taught by
traditional method in the test
of acquiring geographical
concepts.
2. There is not such a
significant relation also
between the two group in
the test of sustaining
geographic concepts.
The research has been
conducted on the first- year
intermediate and secondary
morning schools for girls,
belonging to the general
directory of education in
Karbala.
The sample, which was
chosen from the first- year
students of summaye
intermediate school,
randomly consists of (68)
students.
The material to be tested
was the first four chapters
from the textbook of
geography, principles of
general geography for the
first- year intermediate
schools (20) geographical
concepts were identified,
and (112) behavioral goals .
The test of acquiring
geographical concepts
consists of (60) items of
multiple- choice type in
agreement with the three
processes of measuring the
acquiring of
concepts(defining the
concept- recognizing the
concept- applying the
concept) the test was
assured for its validity,
reliability and psychometric
features.
The data were analyses
by using(t-test) the results
showed that the
experimental group which
was taught by using class
activities has surpassed the
second group taught by
traditional method in both
tests acquiring geographical
concepts test, and
sustaining geographical
concepts test.
In the light of the findings
obtained, the researcher put
forward the following
recommendations:
1.Concentrating on class
activities as a fundamental
component of lesson
planning.
2.Having booklets or leaflets
to explain the goals of
educational class activities
for all stages to help
teachers of social sciences
when teaching these
subjects.
3.Constructing training
courses for teachers of
geography to be aware of
the importance and use of
these educational class
activities
The researcher suggests
that the following studies
should be carried out: -
1.Conducting a similar study
for other different stages
and other variables such as
creative thinking and
problem solving.
2. Conducting a similar
study for other subjects.

Image of Oppressed woman in Nathanial Hawthorne’s ‘’ The Birthmark’’

M.Maali Abdul Hussein Mehdi

Al-Bahith Journal, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 328-338

The question of women is the dominating motive in Hawthorne’s works, which offer rich images of women; their changing lives, frustrations and dreams. Hawthorne never viewed women as unimportant or as threatening Eves, but rather, as men’s vital, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual partners, companions not threats. In his short stories and romances, Hawthorne creates a wide range of female characters. Some are independent-minded, self-confident; others embody the gender expectations of women in Hawthorne’s day, weak and dependent on men.1
He presents a number of female characters who are victims of men, destroyed by male power. Through these various characters and their experiences, Hawthorne explores the gender relations in his day. He also raises questions about the role of domesticity in shaping female characters and the role of emotion as well as reason in human experience.2
This study focuses on one of Hawthorne’s female character who has been controlled by her selfish husband, Georgiana, the heroine of ‘’the Birthmark’’, and how this selfishness leads to her death. Consequently, woman cannot be defined by her relation to a man because she is an independent human being.

Implicit Negation in Selected Romantic Poems in the English and Arabic (Poetry Contrastive Study)

M.M.Alham Fadhl Muslah

Al-Bahith Journal, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 366-382

Implicit negation is a syntactic-semantic concept referring to those sentences that are semantically negated by the presence of some adverbials, quantifiers, conjunctions, particles, etc. The present study is concerned with implicit negation in Romantic poetry in English and Arabic literature by making comparison between selected English poems written by famous Romantic poet "Wordsworth" and selected Arabic poems written by the poet "Nazir Qabbanai ". The aims of present study is to find out the types of implicit negation in the selected literary texts and how linguistic context plays a significant part in determining implicitly negative constructions in both languages . Secondly, to show differences and similarities in using implicit negative in both languages

The Use of /i/ and /a/ Variables Spoken by Karbala Speech Community

Dr. Ra; Prof. Asst; ad Shakir AL.Nawas; Mustafa Talib AL.Juboury

Al-Bahith Journal, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 383-395

The aim of this research is to present a study of two variables in Karbala speech community. Six main areas have been put under investigation. They are Karbala city and suburb, AL.Hindia town and rural and AL.Hussainia town and rural.
The /a/ and /i/ variables have been chosen to correlate with social variables. The social variables are: gender , age , education and region.
This study depends upon ninety- six informants represent a sample in Karbala speech community.
The use of quantitative methods enabled the researcher in observing language variation . The T- test analysis and ANOVA are the statistical procedure which has been applied in this study.
For the purpose of realizing the aims of the research, it come up with following results:

1. we can say that old people are more conservative than the young.
2. Education has a strong impact on people of both sexes on the direction towards the variety.
3. Women prefers to use the high prestige. This is may be due to the fact that they have little contact with the people of the town .
4. People in Karbala and Hindia town prefer to use the /a/ variable whereas people in Al.Hussiania prefer to use /?u/ People in Karbala, Al.Hindia and Al.Hussiania prefers to use /i/ more than /u/.

The Importance Of Colour Symbolis University Of Kerbala College Of Education For Humanities Department Of Engligh In F. S. Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"

Kaneez Zehra Shahnaz Sultana

Al-Bahith Journal, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 202-221

erald's masterpiece
The Great Gatsby is regarded as one
of his greatest work. It has been
considered by many a symbol for the
"jazz Age," a period of extraordinary
wealth and promise. Fitzgerald uses
many different symbolisms to
express his convictions and ideas.
Symbolism is a very important
device in the configuration of the
story. Colours are frequently used as
symbols to accentuate the meaning
of a story and explain certain actions
of a character. F. S. Fitzgerald uses
colour symbolism throughout the
The Great Gatsby as a major device
to develop the personality of his
characters, to represent different
themes and set up events.
This study attempts to analyze
Fitzgerald's use of colours as
symbols which is prominent in
every chapter of the novel. Without
colour symbolism you would not
truly understand the theme of the
novel. To bring this view to light,
the paper concentrates on, to explain
the meaning of different colours used
in the novel.
In section one, the study gives
a brief introduction to the writer, and
sheds light on the social and cultural
Background of the American society
in 1920's. The various cultural
elements reflected in the novel which
led to the downfall of the 1920s
American Dream will be analyzed in
section two . Section three acquaints
the reader how Fitzgerald utilizes the
colour symbolism to develop major
theme and personalities of his
characters in the novel. The paper
concludes with an analysis of how
the colour symbolism reflect the