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A Journal quarterly accredited academic journal issued by the College of Education University of Karbala
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Journal Information

Publisher: Kerbala University

Email:  Al-Bahith_journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. farok m. alhaboby

ISSN: 2003-2222

Adverbs of Frequency in English and Arabic As A Contrastive Study

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 403-414

Key words: Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, Modern Standard English (MSE), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), English Adverbs of Frequency, and Arabic counterparts of Adverbs of Frequency.
The present study deals with adverbs of frequency in Modern Standard English and Modern Standard Arabic. This is an analytical contrastive study that is applied here to reveal the aspects of similarity and dissimilarity between the two languages. It consists of five sections; introduction, adverbs of frequency in MSE, the counterparts of them in MSA, contrastive analysis of adverbs of frequency between the two languages and conclusions.
The research-paper arrives at some similarities and differences. They are similar in: position of the adverbs(initial, medial, final) and existence of negative in both. As for differences, English differs from Arabic in that adverbs of frequency are of two main kinds: Definite Frequency and Indefinite Frequency, English adverbs of frequency come between subject and the main verb but when we have auxiliary they come after it. In Arabic, this case is not found.

The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Quranic Language

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 8, Issue 20, Pages 0-0

The research ''The Style of Intimidation and Inducement in the Qur'anic Language'' is taken by the researchers in order to investigate and analyze the social linguistic influences in Qur'anic meaning. The most important features of this topic is to approach the Qur’anic texts from sociolinguistic view point. Sociolinguistic view point is that social features can limit the social environment of the speaker by means of different speech habits and behaviors.
It is worth mentioning that this study is to find the meanings of sociolinguistic terminology concerning the style of intimidation and inducement in Quranic language. It is important ,in such a case, to make a comparison between solidarity and intimacy with intimidation and inducement, since all these concepts guide us to the same result. The glorious Quranic texts have been chosen, since these texts contain many words and expressions of power speech and solidarity.
The study endeavors to determine different types of sociolinguistic variations concerning power speech and solidarity in terms of intimidation and inducement in a speech community according to social situation including: place, role-relationship and topic to constitute a typical linguistic domain. It is important to prove that intimidation and inducement create words and expressions that are the fundamental basis of the Arab-Muslim society. The researchers will prove that these facts, firstly, by studying the findings of some well – known sociolinguists like John Gumberz and Wiliam Labove who have written the rules of writing controversial texts concerning changing within a speech community. We make use from some definitions of Noam Chomsky concerning an ideal speaker-listener of homogeneity of language in different speech communities. Secondly, it is to apply the rules of discourse analysis for selected Glorious Quranic texts .


The impact of active learning in the development of skills in Reading Comprehension material literature and texts with literary fourth grade students

Safaa Wadia abd AL Sada AL-abady

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 180-205

The goal of current research to identify the effectiveness of active learning in the development of reading comprehension skills for students in the fourth grade literary material literature and texts, compared to the traditional way of teaching.
The literature has demonstrated the positive impact of previous studies of this kind of active learning strategies in the development of the skill of reading comprehension for students.
To achieve the goal of the research and the researcher developed the following null hypothesis; (There is no statistically significant difference at the level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who are studying literature and texts material strategy of active learning, and the average score for the control group students who are studying literature and texts in the traditional way). The study sample consisted of random (41) students from the fourth row of the literary stage Preparatory School.
Rewarded researcher between the two groups of students in search of some variables, namely: (level of intelligence, and the chronological age of the students measured in months). Having identified the issues of scientific material to be examined in the course of the experiment drafted researcher behavioral objectives for these issues in the light of the general goals of the material and content of the subject which included six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the cognitive domain, namely: (remembering, understanding, application, analysis, installation, and Calendar) .
The researcher has designed a tool to collect and measure the results, and were as follows: The presence of statistically significant differences between the traditional method and the strategy of active learning, were in favor of the experimental group that studied according to the strategy of active learning to the control group, who studied according to the traditional method.
In light of the results concluded several conclusions, including the researcher, that the use of active learning strategy contribute to raising the level of academic achievement for students in the fourth grade literary material and literature texts.
The researcher recommended the need to use a strategy of active learning in the teaching of literature and texts of the Preparatory phase, and the need to train faculty to use a strategy of active learning, and suggested that similar studies of current research in other branches of the Arabic language and the different stages of learning.

Thought soundwhenImamJa'far ibn Muhammad Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148H)

Asst.Proo. D. HassanAbd Al-Ghanial-Asadi

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 265-285

Karbala University/Faculty of Islamic Sciences
Research Summary: Thought sound when Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148 H)
Book uniformity dictated by Imam al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) (83 -148 H) on his favorite student Ben Omar a leading Islamic heritage sounding the Imam Sadeq scientific aspects of multiple foundations landmarks stage of scientific thinking was the voice side and one of them. This included side on three tracks: the production of sounds, and the center of the carrier, and a hearing. Like Imam (peace be upon him) a Palmes pronunciation, which represent an impact in the process to understand the mechanism of speech, and has its impact in subsequent studies. Thus Imam is the founder of this science, in light of the idea of unification; held the book for a statement manifestations.

Image of Oppressed woman in Nathanial Hawthorne’s ‘’ The Birthmark’’

M.Maali Abdul Hussein Mehdi

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 328-338

The question of women is the dominating motive in Hawthorne’s works, which offer rich images of women; their changing lives, frustrations and dreams. Hawthorne never viewed women as unimportant or as threatening Eves, but rather, as men’s vital, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual partners, companions not threats. In his short stories and romances, Hawthorne creates a wide range of female characters. Some are independent-minded, self-confident; others embody the gender expectations of women in Hawthorne’s day, weak and dependent on men.1
He presents a number of female characters who are victims of men, destroyed by male power. Through these various characters and their experiences, Hawthorne explores the gender relations in his day. He also raises questions about the role of domesticity in shaping female characters and the role of emotion as well as reason in human experience.2
This study focuses on one of Hawthorne’s female character who has been controlled by her selfish husband, Georgiana, the heroine of ‘’the Birthmark’’, and how this selfishness leads to her death. Consequently, woman cannot be defined by her relation to a man because she is an independent human being.

Implicit Negation in Selected Romantic Poems in the English and Arabic (Poetry Contrastive Study)

M.M.Alham Fadhl Muslah

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 366-382

Implicit negation is a syntactic-semantic concept referring to those sentences that are semantically negated by the presence of some adverbials, quantifiers, conjunctions, particles, etc. The present study is concerned with implicit negation in Romantic poetry in English and Arabic literature by making comparison between selected English poems written by famous Romantic poet "Wordsworth" and selected Arabic poems written by the poet "Nazir Qabbanai ". The aims of present study is to find out the types of implicit negation in the selected literary texts and how linguistic context plays a significant part in determining implicitly negative constructions in both languages . Secondly, to show differences and similarities in using implicit negative in both languages

Deviation of Grice's Manner Maxim In Hamlet 's Character

Azhar Hassan Salumee

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 7, Issue 19, Pages 6-23

The present study
addresses the issue of
implication in
Shakespeare's Hamlet,
viewed from a Gricean
perspective. Conversational
exchanges are chosen and
analysed with regard to acts
of non-observance
(Violating) of Gricean
manner maxim. The
researcher has found out
that the character Hamlet
violates the manner maxim
by using too many words,
repeating information,
stating ambiguous
speeches, and using
obscure expressions. The
reasons behind this
violation vary from
unwillingness to cooperate
to misleading the people. In
other words, Hamlet in
violating this maxim aims at
getting the hearer not to
know the truth but to build
his/her understanding on
the surface meaning of the
words. Hopefully, these
findings would improve the
understanding of the
violation of manner maxim
specifically for misleading
and enable the reader to

Implicit Negation in Selected Romantic Poems in the English and Arabic (Poetry Contrastive Study)

M.M.Alham Fadhl Muslah

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 366-382

Implicit negation is a syntactic-semantic concept referring to those sentences that are semantically negated by the presence of some adverbials, quantifiers, conjunctions, particles, etc. The present study is concerned with implicit negation in Romantic poetry in English and Arabic literature by making comparison between selected English poems written by famous Romantic poet "Wordsworth" and selected Arabic poems written by the poet "Nazir Qabbanai ". The aims of present study is to find out the types of implicit negation in the selected literary texts and how linguistic context plays a significant part in determining implicitly negative constructions in both languages . Secondly, to show differences and similarities in using implicit negative in both languages

Insurgency In the alienation of the poet Blend Haidari

Dr. Qais Sabeeh Alatwani

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 147-176

the isolation of the natures of the human
self, especially self-poet and artist, and this isolation is
relatively scalable for growth and inflation in conditions that pose a restriction on the freedom of the artist, and a barrier to starting thinking, and creativity, such as those that dived in which the poet Blend Haidari. But his failure in this and that, from the realm of life, betrayed him to the emotional alienation, political, and spatial, to the (spiritual alienation), which reflected the alienation compound, and then up to the rebellion in all types of alienation.
In order to Aathol alienation to hell for the intolerable, it is on the poet to overcome, or mitigate its effects in the very least, through the curriculum redemptive is the joint responses is to return to childhood, and the restoration of the past, and building cities, papillary, and in other formats despising immorality and displacement as Blend the poet al-Haidari. and so entered the field of the poet to look at the phenomenon of insurgency in Aghtrabh, and this research was divided three sections: Section I is entitled (the concept of rebellion and alienation) .. I have found the need for highly of the extensive on the subject and not to make preparation for it will not be sufficient to establish perspective enriches the research and achieve the end of it, so dealt with given the linguistic and semantic of the concept of rebellion and alienation with reference to its early beginnings to poets old, in order to provide an overview of this concept in the visions of poetry at the hands of the modern school of poetry and modern monetary. The second section has developed a title (the insurgency in spiritual exile) for Tmizbeh this type of alienation is reflected in the composite poems.
Including the incarnation and death and the idea of human believer.


Saad Jwaed Kadom

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 7, Pages 275-326

The staff member is one of the important educational and scientific constituents in university and one of the main pillars that iden tify the degree of learning proiciency,level and efficiency .he has important roles in achieving and developing learning.
The study aims at evaluating the performance of the history teacher,in university of karbala,from the students point of view in the light of effective teaching.the society of the study is the students in the department of history for morning studyes in the academic year 2008-2009,their number is(355)student .the researcher picked a deliberate sample of(91)student from the fourth classes rating(%25.63)of the study society.
To carry out evaluation ,the researcher surveyed he litevafure and scientific sufficiency necessary for the staff member.accordingly,a norm composed of seven fields is organized .the is fields are educotional and behovioural goals for the lecture,planning and excuting the lecture,human relatoins,managing the learning environment and its learnning techningues,ability to run and the class,personal fea tares and finally evaluation. .
After analysing the samples final responses measured by the norm set and by using staistical means such as arithmetic means,alfa korenbach equation,the standard deviation,variation and percentahe,the stady reacle at the result the eva luation of the performance of the history teacher in the light of effectes teaihing has been medium in performance according to the sample responles.Moreover ,there are no statistical differences in evaluating the per formance of the history teacher with respect to students sex.
The Reseacher Recommends That It Is Nnecessary to care about the curriculums of me the do logy sessios,and these sessios should not only be Routinic ones,hoiving no effect on the process of university teaching .Moreover ,it is Necessary take care about effective teaching that affects the learners personality and ,hence ,bring about the desired change in the learners behaviour, not only instructing him with in formation and knowledge.it is allso necessary to follow this process of evaluation yearly with respect to students points of view,and depend on it a tool of identifying phases of strength and weakness for teachers in general.
The Researcher Suggests That a Similar Study Be Carried Out To Evaluat the performance of Staff Members in the light of Effive Teaching according to other variables such as teacher sex,Experience,speciazation and Title .staff members of other departments in the college of Education,University of karbala can also be included in similar studies

The Importance Of Colour Symbolis University Of Kerbala College Of Education For Humanities Department Of Engligh In F. S. Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"

Kaneez Zehra Shahnaz Sultana

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 202-221

erald's masterpiece
The Great Gatsby is regarded as one
of his greatest work. It has been
considered by many a symbol for the
"jazz Age," a period of extraordinary
wealth and promise. Fitzgerald uses
many different symbolisms to
express his convictions and ideas.
Symbolism is a very important
device in the configuration of the
story. Colours are frequently used as
symbols to accentuate the meaning
of a story and explain certain actions
of a character. F. S. Fitzgerald uses
colour symbolism throughout the
The Great Gatsby as a major device
to develop the personality of his
characters, to represent different
themes and set up events.
This study attempts to analyze
Fitzgerald's use of colours as
symbols which is prominent in
every chapter of the novel. Without
colour symbolism you would not
truly understand the theme of the
novel. To bring this view to light,
the paper concentrates on, to explain
the meaning of different colours used
in the novel.
In section one, the study gives
a brief introduction to the writer, and
sheds light on the social and cultural
Background of the American society
in 1920's. The various cultural
elements reflected in the novel which
led to the downfall of the 1920s
American Dream will be analyzed in
section two . Section three acquaints
the reader how Fitzgerald utilizes the
colour symbolism to develop major
theme and personalities of his
characters in the novel. The paper
concludes with an analysis of how
the colour symbolism reflect the

Optimism & Pessimism And Their Relation With Preparatory School Students

Dr. Ali A. Al-Khareem; Dr. Adnan M. Jabr

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 318-375

Anyone who chooses psychology as his specialty and who faithfully wishes to have his/her contribution in this field has to know the effect of anticipation related to optimism and pessimism which have their impression on the youth in their early years especially during the preparatory school period, besides, it is necessary to be aware of the presence of such characteristics and also their range in such groups of students, through means which have no impact on drawing their attention, especially that students of such an age are considered more sensitive and consequently force us to treat them with care; therefore , for them, questionnaire and questions will be embarrassing and the best alternative for them will be the projective drawings which can be obtained by cooperation with teachers of fine arts, But, we should first know the characteristics that appear in the drawings of these optimists and pessimists in isolation. As a result, a need for two(types of) instruments arose:
First: an instrument (tool)detecting { optimism, pessimism}
Second: an instrument by which the students drawings at preparatory schools are analyzed according to the two characteristics { optimism, pessimism}.

The researchers have built an instrument (tool) to measure the { optimism – pessimism} characteristics for their research as they found it some thing inevitable due to the fact the number of the participants of the sample for the measuring instrument was (390) student of the fifth preparatory stage. The psychometric characteristics were confirmed by using T- test and internal equivalence/factor coefficient by using Pearson's correlation coefficient.
The psychometric characteristics of the measuring instrument as a whole (validity & reliability) were also confirmed ,together with finding.
The researchers have used a drawing analysis instrument Al-Bayati , 2004 built as it conforms to the content analysis method needed to carry out this research wherein. The instrument has consisted of three fields containing (16) subfields branched out into (60) categories which , in term ,contained (141) drawing characteristics, The researchers, then, proved the validity and reliability of them by handing them in to five experts in the field of psychology and fine arts – and with the help of some exterior analysts , a sample of drawings , the validity coefficients of which romped (0,786- 0,842) was analyzed and all the coefficients were of a statistical value (indication) of (0,05) range.
The two instruments (tools) were applied on the main principal sample of the research which consisted of (120) students – as the two measuring instruments were applied on the students, answers to the question raised and their drawings were measured as to the drawing analysis instrument. The following results were obtained:
a. ( 29 ) characteristics of the characteristics of the drawing analysis instrument obtained (50%) and more.
b. The drawing of those optimists showed that there were (26 ) dominant characteristics which obtained (50%) and more.
c. The drawing of those pessimists showed that there were (27) dominant characteristics which obtained (50%) and more.
d. The research showed that there were differences in characteristics between the drawing of those pessimists, and the differences in percentages were of statistical value of (0.05) level.
e. Four prominent in the drawings of those preparatory school optimists were noticed.
f. Two prominent characteristics in the drawings of the preparatory school pessimists were also noticed.
In the view of the above results and conclusions the researchers put forth their recommendations and suggestions.