ISSN: 2003-2222

Author : Adnan M. Jabr, Dr.


Optimism & Pessimism And Their Relation With Preparatory School Students

Dr. Ali A. Al-Khareem; Dr. Adnan M. Jabr

Al-Bahith Journal, 2012, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 318-375

Anyone who chooses psychology as his specialty and who faithfully wishes to have his/her contribution in this field has to know the effect of anticipation related to optimism and pessimism which have their impression on the youth in their early years especially during the preparatory school period, besides, it is necessary to be aware of the presence of such characteristics and also their range in such groups of students, through means which have no impact on drawing their attention, especially that students of such an age are considered more sensitive and consequently force us to treat them with care; therefore , for them, questionnaire and questions will be embarrassing and the best alternative for them will be the projective drawings which can be obtained by cooperation with teachers of fine arts, But, we should first know the characteristics that appear in the drawings of these optimists and pessimists in isolation. As a result, a need for two(types of) instruments arose:
First: an instrument (tool)detecting { optimism, pessimism}
Second: an instrument by which the students drawings at preparatory schools are analyzed according to the two characteristics { optimism, pessimism}.

The researchers have built an instrument (tool) to measure the { optimism – pessimism} characteristics for their research as they found it some thing inevitable due to the fact the number of the participants of the sample for the measuring instrument was (390) student of the fifth preparatory stage. The psychometric characteristics were confirmed by using T- test and internal equivalence/factor coefficient by using Pearson's correlation coefficient.
The psychometric characteristics of the measuring instrument as a whole (validity & reliability) were also confirmed ,together with finding.
The researchers have used a drawing analysis instrument Al-Bayati , 2004 built as it conforms to the content analysis method needed to carry out this research wherein. The instrument has consisted of three fields containing (16) subfields branched out into (60) categories which , in term ,contained (141) drawing characteristics, The researchers, then, proved the validity and reliability of them by handing them in to five experts in the field of psychology and fine arts – and with the help of some exterior analysts , a sample of drawings , the validity coefficients of which romped (0,786- 0,842) was analyzed and all the coefficients were of a statistical value (indication) of (0,05) range.
The two instruments (tools) were applied on the main principal sample of the research which consisted of (120) students – as the two measuring instruments were applied on the students, answers to the question raised and their drawings were measured as to the drawing analysis instrument. The following results were obtained:
a. ( 29 ) characteristics of the characteristics of the drawing analysis instrument obtained (50%) and more.
b. The drawing of those optimists showed that there were (26 ) dominant characteristics which obtained (50%) and more.
c. The drawing of those pessimists showed that there were (27) dominant characteristics which obtained (50%) and more.
d. The research showed that there were differences in characteristics between the drawing of those pessimists, and the differences in percentages were of statistical value of (0.05) level.
e. Four prominent in the drawings of those preparatory school optimists were noticed.
f. Two prominent characteristics in the drawings of the preparatory school pessimists were also noticed.
In the view of the above results and conclusions the researchers put forth their recommendations and suggestions.