ISSN: 2003-2222

Volume 3, Issue 9

Volume 3, Issue 9, Autumn 2013, Page 7-434

“The city of Eridu and their role in Mesopotamia A Historical Study & Archaeology”

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 27-46

In Sumerian times Eridu ( Abu Shahrin ) was the southern limit, and was” on the shore of the sea “ Within an arc of some 250 Miles radius towards the north-west of that point stood the great centers of Sumerian culture and power. The geographical and climatic conditions of this territory had their inevitable influence in shaping the manner of life to be followed

there, but it is no exaggeration to say that a common stock of ideas and material equipment gave a definition to geography rather than the reverse. Whereas the early pre-historic cultures, which Babylonia only shared, have various but always wide extensions, the first age on history, the Early Dynastic, pass within limits which are almost narrow.
Eridu (or Eridug/Urudug, from Sumerian Eri.dugga, "Good City") was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur. Eridu was the southernmost of the conglomeration of cities that grew about temples, almost in sight of one another, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia. One name of Eridu in cuneiform logograms was pronounced "NUN.KI" ("the Mighty Place") in Sumerian, but much later the same "NUN.KI" was understood to mean the city of Babylon. According to the Sumerian kinglist Eridu was the first city in the world. The opening line reads
"[nam]-lugal an-ta èd-dè-a-ba
[eri]duki nam-lugal-la"
"When kingship from heaven was lowered,
the kingship was in Eridu."
The ziggurat ruins of Eridu are far larger and older than any others, and seem to best match the Biblical description of the unfinished Tower of Babel. In the Sumerian king list, Eridu is named as the city of the first kings. The kinglist continues:In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridu fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira

Semiae label when the Arabs

Dr. Salah kadhim hadi

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 101-118

Modern curriculum working on gathering analysis tools , to integrate in order to open up to the language systems
And available to the Semiotics possibility Multi - label study , as it benefited from the results of other sciences ,
Especially social psychology, as well as ا on lingual staff lesson , so
Lighting Multi can label the Arabs , as were interested in the election of names for religious reasons or
Social or cultural , Islam has developed recommendations for legislation in the selection patterns of
And the prohibition of some names , and other hatred , and this directive has grown to become a system
Its legitimacy and controls knowledge and taste .
The study examined the concept of science and its relationship to the main function performed by a job functions
Preliminary, and the relationship of scientific definition , as well as discuss the concept of comparative knowledge and relationship
Repertory signifier and the issue of presence and absence .
And goes into this subject in into characterization grammar , and the entry illusion in thought
Arabic grammar , and stand on the differences and the meeting between views Almnatqh and grammarians in
This topic.
This disclosure relates with a tendency Aljnosa theme to the Arab masculinity, and the treatment of names
Feminine as Douala on what to , and ended the study reveal affinities between Language Systems
And the structure of society and the class struggle , and the study of the label and social point of view .

Difficulties teaching and studying philology from the point of view of faculty and students

a Azeez Mohammad Al-Musawi; Dr. Dhia

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 119-157

من أجل الوقوف على صعوبات تدريس مادة فقه اللغة ودراستها وإيجاد الحلول المقترحة لها أعدّ هذا البحث .
وقد شمل البحث الصفوف الرابعة في أقسام اللغة العربية في كليات الآداب في العراق ، وقد بلغت عينة البحث ( 8 ) تدريسيين ، و ( 450 ) طالبا وطالبة يتوزعون بين تلك الكليات ، وباستعمال معامل ارتباط بيرسون ، والوسط المرجّح ، والوزن المئوي ، والنسبة المئوية وسائل إحصائية توصل الباحث إلى نتائج بحثه ، وهي أنّ مجال التدريسيين في استبانة التدريسيين حصل على المرتبة الأولى

وهي أعلى درجة حدّة ، إذ بلغ وسطه المرجّح ( 72,1 ) ، ووزنه المئوي ( 86% ) ، في حين حصل مجال المادة على المرتبة السادسة وهي أقل درجة حدّة ، إذ بلغ وسطه المرجّح ( 55,1 ) ، ووزنه المئوي ( 78% ) .
أمّا في استبانة الطلبة فقد حصل مجال المادة على المرتبة الأولى وهي أعلى درجة حدّة ، إذ بلغ وسطه المرجّح ( 616,1 ) ، ووزنه المئوي ( 79,80% ) ، في حين حصل مجال الطلبة على المرتبة السادسة وهي أقل درجة حدّة ، إذ بلغ وسطه المرجّح ( 525,1 ) ، ووزنه المئوي ( 25,76% ) .
وفي ضوء نتائج البحث أوصى الباحث بضرورة اطّلاع التدريسيين والطلبة على أهداف تدريس مادة فقه اللغة وتدوينها لديهم ، وضرورة إلمام التدريسيين بالمبادئ التربوية والنفسية التي تستند إليها طرائق التدريس .

The impact of active learning in the development of skills in Reading Comprehension material literature and texts with literary fourth grade students

Safaa Wadia abd AL Sada AL-abady

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 180-205

The goal of current research to identify the effectiveness of active learning in the development of reading comprehension skills for students in the fourth grade literary material literature and texts, compared to the traditional way of teaching.
The literature has demonstrated the positive impact of previous studies of this kind of active learning strategies in the development of the skill of reading comprehension for students.
To achieve the goal of the research and the researcher developed the following null hypothesis; (There is no statistically significant difference at the level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who are studying literature and texts material strategy of active learning, and the average score for the control group students who are studying literature and texts in the traditional way). The study sample consisted of random (41) students from the fourth row of the literary stage Preparatory School.
Rewarded researcher between the two groups of students in search of some variables, namely: (level of intelligence, and the chronological age of the students measured in months). Having identified the issues of scientific material to be examined in the course of the experiment drafted researcher behavioral objectives for these issues in the light of the general goals of the material and content of the subject which included six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in the cognitive domain, namely: (remembering, understanding, application, analysis, installation, and Calendar) .
The researcher has designed a tool to collect and measure the results, and were as follows: The presence of statistically significant differences between the traditional method and the strategy of active learning, were in favor of the experimental group that studied according to the strategy of active learning to the control group, who studied according to the traditional method.
In light of the results concluded several conclusions, including the researcher, that the use of active learning strategy contribute to raising the level of academic achievement for students in the fourth grade literary material and literature texts.
The researcher recommended the need to use a strategy of active learning in the teaching of literature and texts of the Preparatory phase, and the need to train faculty to use a strategy of active learning, and suggested that similar studies of current research in other branches of the Arabic language and the different stages of learning.

Styles of thinking and its relationship to religious commitment among the students of the University of Karbala

AD . Dr. Ahmed Abdel Hussein Alozergawi; m.m Alia Naseer Kaabi; m.m MUNAF FATHI

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 249-274

The current study aimed to identify the level of thinking styles among the students of the Faculty of Education and identify the level of religious commitment among the students of the Faculty of Education, University of Karbala and to identify the relationship between the ways of thinking and religious commitment among the students of the University of Karbala . The current research was limited to a sample of 100 students from the third stage , and males and females were selected randomly class of students from the Faculty of Education of the terms of reference of the University of Karbala and humanitarian for the academic year ( 2012-2013 ) . In order to achieve the objectives of the research were adopted ways of thinking scale prepared by Harrison and Bramson . The measure was adopted religious commitment Hamdani ( 2005). Scales has been applied to basic research sample , and after analyzing the data and statistically treated using the following statistical methods : t-test for one sample Pearson correlation coefficient . The study found that members of the research sample enjoy a high religious commitment and Synthesis style comes at the forefront of analytical methods and style was the last methods.

Nomani approach in the historical novel by writing backbiting Assistant Lecturer

Salwa Hassan edaan

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 275-291

especially the absence of Imam Mahdi (may God hasten his reappearance)
because he has experienced this period and was able to convey to us information of importance adopted by historians who Ja after him and who Ahtamo this period, a period dubbed backbiting Minor Then major occultation.
Search section three chapters (SSI) for required by the nature of the study, it handled First research joints personal life studied, including his name and the percentage of the surname, surname, birth and upbringing and his family and then his assassination, was limited sources at hand _ which sources saying a famous and quite a few _ to mention his name and his father, The other some titles him as ((Nomani, an author, a Shiite, al-Baghdadi, Tuni)) and was the first of months titles that title, and also the case in the birth and upbringing did not provide sources with accurate information about it except that the label Balnemana may Yumye to birth or upbringing There,

but for the family of Sheikh Nomani did not find her only daughter called Fatima bint Abi Abdullah Nomani wife Ali bin al-Hussein bin Ali bin Mohammed bin Yousef Moroccan.
As for his death, died honorable Sheikh Nomani when feet from Baghdad that he stayed there and was taught by Kulayni and helped him in writing a book enough and wrote him a plan for twenty years and then went to the Levant and died there in 360 AH.
The second section addresses the scientific status that characterized Sheikh Nomani, we find unexplained and updated speaker and the front Akaber Shiite scholars, which is great destiny, and Sharif Manzala, and true faith .
The student of Sheikh Nomani by Akaber scientists and especially the Shiite scholars adequate Kulayni author of the book, as it was for the Sheikh Nomani number of pupils who Saro on his approach, as we mentioned in our books Sheikh Nomani that may be each Msabohh and other non-printed.
And mentioned in Section III methodology Sheikh Nomani of the novel historical through the book backbiting, if we meaning attribution and adoption in the novel historical and number novels that were Musnad and Musnad, Kmazkrna number Koranic verses as well as the Hadith, and mentioned geographical locations and number, and we find through our knowledge on novels historical in backbiting find book that there is a breakdown and brevity and repetition in the novels as well as a commentary and this shows us interesting historical author incident through the transfer, and dealt with the resources of the historical novel in the book of absence.

The effect of Arab Al- Khuld in the political life of West countries during the era of both states of Al- Muwahadeen State and Bani Mareen( 524 – 876 A.H. / 1130 – 1472 A.C. )

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, Pages 375-400

This research is shedding the light on an Arabian tribe stayed away from historical references, it had been mentioned only by indications through studies dealt the migration of Arabian tribes in the Fifth A.H. Century / Eleventh A.C. Century , So we thought of studying the effect of Arab Al – Khuld basically in the both states of Al – Muwahadeen and Bani Mareen , besides following of their news in the Arabian Island and Egypt till their arrival of to the countries of Arabian West , the necessity required to divide the research into three episodes , we dealt through the first episode with the works of Arab Al – Khuld and their morals in the Arabian Island , Egypt and Africa , it has been divided into three parts , we discussed through the first part Arab Al – Khuld and their morals in the Arabian Island , in the second part , we have focused on the connections of Arab Al – Khuld with Fatemeens , in the third part , we have treated the connection of Arab Al – Khuld with the state of Bani Zairi in Africa .
Second Episode has been specialized to the study of the effect of Arab Al – Khuld in the political life of the state of Al – Muwahadeen , it has been divided into two points : We have discussed through the first point the relationship of Arab Al – Khuld with the state of Al – Muwahadeen in the development and prosperity stage , through the second point , we have treated the political relationship of Arab Al – Khuld with the state of Al – Muwahadeen in the deterioration and disintegration stage , through the third episode , we have discussed the connections of Arab Al – Khuld with the state of Mareen and their statues toward the conflicts of Bani Mareen
Through our study of the history of Arab Al – Khuld ,We can find out that they have big effects in Western Countries , they have greatly participated in the spread of Arabic in the Atlantic Mountains , in another side , they have helped in the spread of Arabian Culture in the Western Countries where most of its tribes are barbarians , these tribes had been effected by Arabs in general and specifically with Arab Al – Khuld , besides , Arab Al – Khuld had a specific position in the Western Countries as a result of their great numbers and their money , besides their affinity to the sultans of Bani Mareen , and they became as advisors for them , all these matters gave them a specific position in the Western Countries .
Besides all above mentioned , Arab Al – Khuld had negative effects on the Western Countries represented by the attacks they used to make against different areas , by which they were making robbery and raids as they used to make in the Arabian Island , making the populations of Western Countries suffering of this problem , especially when the states gets weak , the chiefs of Arab Al – Khuld executed rebellion and raids , So , after all we have seen , we can understand that this tribe hadn't been focused on by ancient historians , except Ibn Khaldun , who focused on mentioning of the Arabian tribes whom have migrated in the Middle of Fifth A.H. Century / Eleventh A.C. Century , besides , the researches which have dealt with the migration of the Arabian tribes during that period haven't focused on Arab Al – Khuld in spite of the obvious effect they left .