ISSN: 2003-2222

Volume 6, Issue 17

Volume 6, Issue 17, Autumn 2016, Page 6-371

Employing Pre-reading Strategies in Enhancing Third Year College Students' Understanding of Poetry

Dr. Haider kadhim Khudhier; Nadia Majeed Hussein

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 6-16

are often found to have
difficulties in understanding the
meaning of poetic texts . This may
be attributed to the fact they do not
match the new information with the
one existing in their minds. Hence ,
it seems necessary to dig in the
strategies that can be employed to
enhance understanding and
comprehending of poetic texts as
taught in the third year stage ,
College of Education/ Ibn Rushd ,
Department of English. This paper
tends to explore the effect of using
pre-reading strategies ( such as:
word splash, key words , pre-write
questions , storyimpression ,
pictures , do-now , think-pair- share
, KWL chart and I-search )on the
college students' understanding of
Sixty students are selected to
be the sample of the study ,divided
into two equal groups : 30
representing the experimental (
following the pre-reading strategies
in teaching poetry) and 30
representing the control ( following
the traditional way of teaching
poetry) . After conducting the
process of equalizing these groups
in terms of factors such as age , sex
, level of parents' education , it has
been found that students of
experimental group perform better in
activities related to comprehending
poetic texts . The pre-reading
strategies motivate students to be
enthusiastically engaged in
problems of interpreting and
explaining the meaning of poetry.
Moreover , they appear to be more
active and ready to solve problems
of Staiger ( 1973:37 ) contends
that reading is essentially a
cognitive process "during which
the reader not only comprehends
ideas found in a text but also
interprets and evaluates them.
Expressed another way, reading
is the most crucial of the four
language skills comprehending
poetr 1.0 Introduction
for EFL learners ,as
it enables them to gain exposure
to the target language and
receive valuable linguistic input to
build language proficiency.
Readers often need to go through
an active process rather than
simply decoding the graphic
representation . For this,
Anderson (1999:1) states that :
Reading is an active, fluent
process which involves the
and the reading material in
building meaning. Meaning
does not reside on the printed
page ,synergy occurs in reading
which combines the words on
the printed page with the
reader's background knowledge
and experiences.
In the same vein, Ur ( 1996:
138 ) argues that reading means
reading and understanding .
Reading the words, not knowing
what they mean, merely indicates
decoding ( translating written
symbols into corresponding
sounds ) . To give a finer
explanation, he ( ibid ) affirms
that reading implies the following
tips :
1- perceiving and decoding
letters in order to read words,
2- understanding all the words in
order to understood the meaning
of a text,
3- gathering meaning from what
is read, and
4- understanding of a text by
understanding the words it
In brief, reading can mostly be
viewed as the translation of
graphic symbols into their
corresponding meaning whether
spoken or written. Most
definitions of reading seem to be
based on the idea that
comprehension is the essence of
reading, without which no reading
can take place. In this
connection, this paper intends to
investigate the application of
pre-reading strategies to enhance
understanding poetry of the third
year classes.

Investigating Iraqi English Secondary School Teachers' Classroom Strategies

Khansa; a H. AL-Bahadli; Ph.D. Candidate

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 17-31

This study is about Iraqi excellent
English secondary school teachers’
classroom strategies . The study
focuses on teachers’ classroom
strategies in four aspects: managing
classroom interaction, questioning,
teacher’s feedback and error
correction. The findings show that
the teachers use some classroom
strategies that encourage students to
speak at class in order to create an
interactive classroom.
The purpose of this study is to
identify and investigate what exact
strategies the excellent teachers use
to create an interactive classroom.
Two kinds of approaches are mainly
used in the studies of EFL classroom
interactions (Chaudron,1988: 1)
Behavioral Category: behavioral
category classifies behaviors of the
teacher and students in terms of
language skill acquisition
consequences of the behaviors. It
involves the use of a form or
schedule consisting of a set of
categories for coding specific
classroom behaviors. 2) Discourse
analysis: discourse analysis serves as
a device for systematically
describing the kinds of interactions
that occur in language classrooms.
The researchers aim to account for
the joint contributions of teacher and
students and describe all the data.
1.1The Problem and its Significance Introduction

Solicit life in Hindia town ( Twairidge) 1780 – 1914 A Historical Study 187

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 32-49

We may be for a way of the
historical truth if we do not confess
the extreme importance of Handier
town ,either in its names events
,settlements or the attitude of its
population towards the Ottoman
policy and then their role in resisting
the British Occupation since 1914 up
to the international revolution of
1920 .
India ,the emergence of this
town was Spontaneously and could
be attributed to its geographical
location ,particularly after digging
Al-Hindi water dam which made this
area as an attracting Center for most
of surrouncling tribes that works in
Cultivation .
The Indian foundation Aula , in
fact , took cure not only in the
establishment of that dam but in
developing the economic and solid
life those tribes also therefore , Hindi
town received them with the required
accommodations the growth of the
City lasted so fast that the city was
promoted to be as Qa'Im maqam
(ottoman name means sub town ) and
in the era of the ottoman reformer
wali (governor) Midhat Basha (
1869-1872 ) this city got so much
attention in many sides of
organization , administration ,as it
was enaxed to Hilla liwa (ottoman
name means city ) and public
services .
The settlement in Hindyia
,really , was accompanied by tribal
conflict for owning its rich reveries
,bat this straggle , Finally
transformed into a conflict with
authorities which increased the taxes
and uses tyranic ways in dealing with
the native tribes .
This conflict resulted in tribal,
social and religions characters' who
Gove much efforts in striving at the
time of crises , so those personalities
were successful against the ottomans
and Forced the latter to the their
claims This research has been
devoted to study the social sides of
the town and the history of the
settlement , name , location , area
and growth the social phenomenon
of the

Cohesion in literary and scientific texts Kerbela university faculty of education department of english

Lecturer; Azhar Hassan Salumee

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 189-201

refers to relations of
meaning that exist within the text,
and that defines it as a text. The
detection of these meaning relations
is important to its interpretation.
These relations are achieved by the
use of cohesive devices. This means
that the presence or absence of these
devices in a text helps to make a text
coherent or incoherent respectively.
This paper is a statistic study of two
types of cohesion : the grammatical
cohesion and lexical one in selected
scientific and literary texts. Three
scientific essays as well as three
literary ones have been chosen for
the purpose of analysis. The six
essays are written by different
British writers and most of them are
taken from the Internet. The study
aims at presenting data verifying the
assumption that both lexical and
grammatical cohesive devices are
more frequent in use in scientific
texts than those occurred in literary
ones. Also, some categories in each
type are more widely used than
others such as conjunctions and
reiteration in both scientific and
literary texts. The study shows that
such conclusions can be traced back
to the writer's intention to use rather
simple, comparative, and descriptive
language in expressing rather
complex topics presented in
scientific texts. That is to say, the use
of indirect and complex language
makes the reader's task more
difficult. Moreover, the frequent
categories of each one help the writer
elaborate, illustrate, compare, and
even add new information and ideas
to his/her reader. The paper starts
with an introduction that acquaints
the reader with the concept of
cohesion and its two types : the
grammatical and lexical cohesion.
Then, an analysis and a statistic
study of six essays are carried out
that reflect the frequency of
occurrence of both types of cohesion
in these texts. Three scientific essays
as well as three literary ones have
been chosen for the purpose of
analysis. The study ends with some
conclusions resulted through the

The Importance Of Colour Symbolis University Of Kerbala College Of Education For Humanities Department Of Engligh In F. S. Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"

Kaneez Zehra Shahnaz Sultana

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 202-221

erald's masterpiece
The Great Gatsby is regarded as one
of his greatest work. It has been
considered by many a symbol for the
"jazz Age," a period of extraordinary
wealth and promise. Fitzgerald uses
many different symbolisms to
express his convictions and ideas.
Symbolism is a very important
device in the configuration of the
story. Colours are frequently used as
symbols to accentuate the meaning
of a story and explain certain actions
of a character. F. S. Fitzgerald uses
colour symbolism throughout the
The Great Gatsby as a major device
to develop the personality of his
characters, to represent different
themes and set up events.
This study attempts to analyze
Fitzgerald's use of colours as
symbols which is prominent in
every chapter of the novel. Without
colour symbolism you would not
truly understand the theme of the
novel. To bring this view to light,
the paper concentrates on, to explain
the meaning of different colours used
in the novel.
In section one, the study gives
a brief introduction to the writer, and
sheds light on the social and cultural
Background of the American society
in 1920's. The various cultural
elements reflected in the novel which
led to the downfall of the 1920s
American Dream will be analyzed in
section two . Section three acquaints
the reader how Fitzgerald utilizes the
colour symbolism to develop major
theme and personalities of his
characters in the novel. The paper
concludes with an analysis of how
the colour symbolism reflect the

Impact the way pictures made in the collection of the rules of the English language material when students

Hayder Z. Kadum

Al-Bahith Journal, Volume 6, Issue 17, Pages 292-314

Aim of the current research is known
as "the impact of the way images
made in the collection of the rules of
the English language material when
students teachers training institutes."
By checking the validity of the
following null hypothesis: -
There is no statistically
significant difference between the
average scores of the collection of
experimental group students who are
studying the rules of the English
language material according to the
method images Mileage average
score for the academic achievement
of female control group who were
studying the same article in the
traditional way.
To achieve the goal of the
research follow procedures
researcher experimental method,
which included selection of
experimental design with two first
pilot taught the rules of the English
language using images Mileage
method and the other officer taught
the rules of the English language is
the use of images Mileage strategy.
Included sample (61) student
randomly selected students from the
fourth grade / Institute preparation
parameters of the Directorate of
Education Baghdad / Rusafa first,
The number of members of the
experimental group (31) and a
student, the number of members of
the control group reached (30) and
Researcher rewarded statistically
between the two sets of search
variables (IQ test scores, and
chronological age of the students
calculated in months, and academic
achievement for parents, and
educational attainment for mothers,
and scores of Arabic for the previous
academic year).
Researcher prepared Anmozgen of
lesson plans for Arabic grammar
topics studied in the experiment
which (method of application, and
provide news on the debutante, and
its effect on the perpetrator, and style
of praise and slander) in light of the
content of the book and behavioral
objectives formulated.
To measure the impact of the