Policy Pakistani President Mohammad Ayub Khan towards the countries and Arab important issues (1958-1969)
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 106-118
Sought Pakistani President Mohammad Ayub Khan to strengthen his country's relations with the Arab countries and support issues as Muslim countries Prominent among these countries Iraq, after he seized power in Pakistan in 1958 work in earnest for rapprochement with the country and exchange officials, the two visits and signed a number of agreements, most notably a cultural agreement in 1962, also praised Ayub Khan Iraqi leaders on several occasions, then the Iraqi president to visit Pakistan in 1964 led to closer ties larger, but for the policy of Ayub Khan towards Egypt has worked Pakistani President to strengthen his country's relations with this country, it has Ayub Khan several visits to Egypt in 1965, as he stood by her side during the Israeli aggression in June 1967. The Pakistani president to visit Saudi Arabia in 1960, also stood recent addition to Pakistan in its war with India in 1965, as well as the policy of Ayub Khan with Jordan, Lebanon, was also a supporter Arab issues, which notably the issues of Palestine and Algeria, as used every means of diplomacy and international available for Pakistan in order to strengthen their positions.
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 119-144
This research aims to show how to use emphasis styles in the office of bani asad to achieve the ends of showing the lingnistic relation between the meaning and the lingnistis.this research divided in turn in to four saction which included the firsts ection(embhasis repetitive)and the second(embhasis instrument) and third(emphasiss baduah increase)and the four(embhasis method) and the most important finding in this chapter assertion thus the style of art beautifies grammatical phrase and give it assort of confiden .
Problems Confronting Faculty Members at university of Karbala Seen from their Viewpoint and Treatment
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 273-296
The present study aims to identifying the obstacles that face the staff members of the university of Karbala, to four fields; problems related to the scientific research problems related to the teaching, problems related to the university administration problems related to the family , in addition to know the suitable solutions about problem which face the teaching members .
To achieve the aim of the research the researcher depend in this study on the descriptive methods approach(survey) and the current study society from the teaching members of the university of Karbala of the academic year (2013-2014) and they are (280) A sample of (84) teachers which represents (30%) of the study's participants.
The questionnaire (as the tool for the research), the questionnaire in its final version, consisted of the (26) distributed in to (4) fields has been found from the analysis of the results and their interpretation that there are many problems it face
faculty member adversely affect the level of functional performance, in the light of these findings by researcher with a series of recommendations that would develop appropriate solutions to address those Constraints against a member of the faculty.
A Comparative Study of Reference and Conjunction As Cohesive Devices in Two English Texts , Their Translated Versions , and Two Original Arabic Texts
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 297-315
This paper is a comparative analysis of two English texts ,their Arabic translated versions and two original Arabic texts . The focus is on reference and conjunction as cohesive devices and the shifts that may occur when translating literary texts due to differences in the grammatical systems of the source ( English ) and the target (Arabic ) language . It shows the translation strategies that translators use in transferring referential cohesion and conjunctions from an English literary text to its Arabic translated version . Also, it identifies the frequency of occurrence of both reference pronouns and conjunctions in all those six texts . To achieve these aims , two English texts have been translated by a professional translator , Safaa Kalusee, who is a well – known translator in Iraq .The first corpus is " A Letter of Condolescence " by Charles Dickens and the second is Miltons poem " Lycidas " . The four texts have been compared to show those shifts in translation .Also , two original Arabic texts have been analysed in terms of reference and conjunction . The first text is A Letter of Condolescence and the second is a poem written by AL- Mutanaby. In addition , a statical study is made to show the difference in the frequency of reference pronouns and conjunctions in all six texts . The first hypothesis is that the linking devices are more implicit in the target text (Arabic ) than in the source one (English ) . This is because of the agglutinating and inflecting nature of the target text as compared to the source one .The second hypothesis is that the two cohesive devices in the target texts are less common than those in the source texts and their frequency in the original Arabic texts is unequal . The results have shown that reference and conjunction are utterly affected in the Arabic target text and their frequency in the original texts depend on the type of the text it self i.e whether it is a poem , a letter , anovel , ........ etc.
Sociolinguistic Features in Selected literary texts of Charles Dickens and Jane Austin's Novels: Hard Times and Pride and prejudice
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 316-327
The present study "Sociolinguistic features in selected literary texts of Charles Dickens and Jane Austin Novels" is carried out by the researcher with the purpose of investigating and analyzing the social linguistic influences surrounding two novels namely: Hard times by Charles Dickens and Pride and prejudice by Jane Austin
This main focus of this topic is to approach the two famous novels of Charles Dickens and Jane Austin from the point of view of sociolinguistics. The point of view is that linguistics can determine the sociological background of the speaker through various speech habits and patterns. The approach is meant to ascertain the social background of writers' characters and the correlation to the writers' method of language use.
The present study attempts to find variations within a single speech community, first by surveying the findings of some well- known sociolinguists like William Labov, Noam Chomsky, and John Gumberz who have studied the traditions of writing argumentative texts concerning variations within a single speech community and second by subjecting selected sociolinguistic texts taken from two novels to a thorough discourse analysis
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 328-338
The question of women is the dominating motive in Hawthorne’s works, which offer rich images of women; their changing lives, frustrations and dreams. Hawthorne never viewed women as unimportant or as threatening Eves, but rather, as men’s vital, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual partners, companions not threats. In his short stories and romances, Hawthorne creates a wide range of female characters. Some are independent-minded, self-confident; others embody the gender expectations of women in Hawthorne’s day, weak and dependent on men.1
He presents a number of female characters who are victims of men, destroyed by male power. Through these various characters and their experiences, Hawthorne explores the gender relations in his day. He also raises questions about the role of domesticity in shaping female characters and the role of emotion as well as reason in human experience.2
This study focuses on one of Hawthorne’s female character who has been controlled by her selfish husband, Georgiana, the heroine of ‘’the Birthmark’’, and how this selfishness leads to her death. Consequently, woman cannot be defined by her relation to a man because she is an independent human being.
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 339-365
This study is concerned with revealing some aspects of Iraqi EFL learners' use of the speech act of permission. The study aims at (1) investigating the ability of Iraqi EFL learners to distinguish between the speech act of permission and other related speech acts, particularly speech acts of (requesting, offering and suggestion) when these are expressed by similar linguistic devices in a number of situations, (2) investigating the most common strategies adopted by Iraqi EFL learners for issuing the speech act of permission in certain situation.
These two objectives can be carried out through the following hypotheses:
1. Iraqi EFL learners recognize explicit permissive utterances better than implicit one.
2. Iraqi EFL learners misinterpret permission with relevant speech acts such as: requesting, offering and suggestion at both levels of recognition and production.
To achieve the objectives of the study and verify the hypotheses, the researcher conducted a test in which 45 Iraqi EFL college students at the fourth year stage, Department of English, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Karbala 20013/2014. The analysis of the data confirms the hypotheses of the study and yields the following:
1. The learners' success in identifying the intended speech act depends to large extent on the degree of the explicitness of the performative expression used.
2. Iraqi EFL learners misinterpret the speech act of permission and have a difficulty to recognize it from other speech acts as requesting, offering and suggestion at the recognition level.
3. The learners tend to use explicit utterances that grant permission better than implicit ones
The contextual factors have no significant influence on the learners' choice of strategies at the production level.
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 366-382
Implicit negation is a syntactic-semantic concept referring to those sentences that are semantically negated by the presence of some adverbials, quantifiers, conjunctions, particles, etc. The present study is concerned with implicit negation in Romantic poetry in English and Arabic literature by making comparison between selected English poems written by famous Romantic poet "Wordsworth" and selected Arabic poems written by the poet "Nazir Qabbanai ". The aims of present study is to find out the types of implicit negation in the selected literary texts and how linguistic context plays a significant part in determining implicitly negative constructions in both languages . Secondly, to show differences and similarities in using implicit negative in both languages
Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 383-395
The aim of this research is to present a study of two variables in Karbala speech community. Six main areas have been put under investigation. They are Karbala city and suburb, AL.Hindia town and rural and AL.Hussainia town and rural.
The /a/ and /i/ variables have been chosen to correlate with social variables. The social variables are: gender , age , education and region.
This study depends upon ninety- six informants represent a sample in Karbala speech community.
The use of quantitative methods enabled the researcher in observing language variation . The T- test analysis and ANOVA are the statistical procedure which has been applied in this study.
For the purpose of realizing the aims of the research, it come up with following results:
1. we can say that old people are more conservative than the young.
2. Education has a strong impact on people of both sexes on the direction towards the variety.
3. Women prefers to use the high prestige. This is may be due to the fact that they have little contact with the people of the town .
4. People in Karbala and Hindia town prefer to use the /a/ variable whereas people in Al.Hussiania prefer to use /?u/ People in Karbala, Al.Hindia and Al.Hussiania prefers to use /i/ more than /u/.